Heart Failure – Heart failure means that the heart is unable to pump blood around the body properly. It usually occurs because the heart has become too weak or stiff.
It’s sometimes called congestive heart failure, although this name isn’t widely used nowadays.
Heart failure doesn’t mean your heart has stopped working. It just needs some support to help it work better.
It can occur at any age, but is most common in older people.
Heart failure is a long-term condition that tends to get gradually worse over time.
It can’t usually be cured, but the symptoms can often be controlled for many years.
Low blood pressure (hypotension) – Low blood pressure is a reading of 90/60mmHg or less. It doesn’t always cause symptoms, but you may need treatment if it does.
Your blood pressure can vary depending on the time of day – it gradually increases throughout the day. What you’re doing and how you’re feeling can also affect it.
There are many possible causes of low blood pressure. It may be low because you’re fit and healthy, or you may have inherited it from your parents.
Some people develop low blood pressure as they get older.
It can also be caused by:
- being pregnant
- some medical conditions, such as diabetes
- some types of medication
High blood pressure (hypertension)- High blood pressure, or hypertension, rarely has noticeable symptoms. But if untreated, it increases your risk of serious problems such as heart attacks and strokes. High blood pressure is considered to be 140/90mmHg or higher. A blood pressure reading between 120/80mmHg and 140/90mmHg could mean you’re at risk of developing high blood pressure if you don’t take steps to keep your blood pressure under control.
Hyperlipidemia (High Cholesterol)- Cholesterol is a type of fat your body makes. It can also come from what you eat. Foods that have cholesterol, saturated fat, and trans fats can raise your blood cholesterol level. Hyperlipidemia is treatable, but it’s often a life-long condition. Hyperlipidemia can run in families. People who inherit the condition can get very high cholesterol.
Pulmonary embolism – A pulmonary embolism is a blocked blood vessel in your lungs. It can be life-threatening if not treated quickly.
Syncope – Fainting (syncope) is caused by a temporary reduction in blood flow to the brain.Blood flow to the brain can be interrupted for a number of reasons.
PoTS- Postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS) is an abnormal increase in heart rate that occurs after sitting up or standing. It typically causes dizziness, fainting and other symptoms.
Atrial Fibrillation- Atrial fibrillation is a heart condition that causes an irregular and often abnormally fast heart rate. A normal heart rate should be regular and between 60 and 100 beats a minute when you’re resting. In atrial fibrillation, the heart rate is irregular and can sometimes be very fast. In some cases, it can be considerably higher than 100 beats a minute.
Atrial Flutter – Atrial flutter results from an abnormal circuit inside the right atrium, or upper chamber of your heart. It beats extra-fast, about 250-400 beats per minute. A normal heartbeat is 60-100 beats per minute. With proper treatment, atrial flutter is rarely life-threatening
Narrow complex tachycardia
Bradycardia -Bradycardia is a slower than normal heart rate. Bradycardia can be a serious problem if the heart doesn’t pump enough oxygen-rich blood to the body. For some people, however, bradycardia doesn’t cause symptoms or complications.
An implanted pacemaker can correct bradycardia and help your heart maintain an appropriate rate.
Cardiomyopathy –Cardiomyopathy is a general term for diseases of the heart muscle, where the walls of the heart chambers have become stretched, thickened or stiff. This affects the heart’s ability to pump blood around the body.
Some types of cardiomyopathy are inherited and are seen in children and younger people.
Aortic stenosis- Aortic stenosis is a condition where the aortic valve becomes narrowed and stiff due to a build up of calcium. Over time the valve fails to open and close properly making it harder for the heart to pump blood out to the rest of the body. As the left ventricle has to work harder it gradually gets bigger and the muscle works less efficiently, leading to signs of heart failure. Symptoms of aortic stenosis may include breathlessness, chest discomfort, dizziness, collapse and swollen ankles.
Mitral regurgitation- is a condition in which your heart’s mitral valve doesn’t close tightly, allowing blood to flow backward in your heart. Treatment of mitral valve regurgitation depends on how severe your condition is, whether it’s getting worse and whether you have symptoms. For mild leakage, treatment is usually not necessary.
You may need heart surgery to repair or replace the valve for severe leakage or regurgitation. Left untreated, severe mitral valve regurgitation can cause heart failure or heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias).